Russia is the first country to create a coronavirus vaccine. Opinions about the drug are contradictory: experts are convinced that vaccination is mandatory for every person, others believe that the drug has not passed a sufficient number of studies.
Vaccines for coronavirus: what are there
"Sputnik V" was created by laboratory assistants of the Scientific Center of Microbiology and Epidemiology named after Gamaleya. The process was supervised by a microbiologist and doctor of biological sciences Denis Yuryevich Logunov.
Sputnik V was registered by the Ministry of Health in August, and in Moscow, mass vaccination began in December. On January 14, 30 new points will be opened in the capital, and the total number of locations will grow to 100 places.
More than 200 COVD-19 vaccines are currently being developed in the world. Representatives of the companies Pfizer / BioNTech (USA), Modern (USA), AstraZenec (together with the University of Oxford), Johnson & Johnson (USA), CanSino Biological Inc. also reported on preliminary results of trials of the effectiveness of the first vaccines. (China). All of them have already been put into civilian circulation in one form or another - before the end of the third stage of testing - due to an emergency epidemiological situation.
A vaccine from Pfizer and BioNTech may appear in Russia, but not earlier than in a year. Also at the stage of testing on volunteers is the second Russian vaccine "EpiVacCorona" from the "Vector" center. It should go into mass production in the coming months.
How Sputnik V vaccine works
"Sputnik V" is a two-component drug that is grafted in two stages, injected intramuscularly. The creators recommend adhering to the following rules:
the first time to enter an intramuscular injection that contains vectors. They contain genes that code for a specific Covid-19 protein and block entry into the cell; the second vaccine is given 21 days later. The drug contains adenoviral vectors. They strengthen the general condition of the body, enhance the protective reaction, due to which long-term immunity is formed.
Sputnik V is among the top ten vaccine candidates on the WHO list of vaccines nearing completion of clinical trials. At the same time, any vaccine at the development stage is potentially dangerous: it induces an immune response that can provoke complications. Requirements for vaccines are always stricter and more severe than for conventional drugs, and it always takes several years for a vaccine to be tested in humans. But in this emergency, WHO and governments made concessions and allowed mass production and vaccination before completing the full test cycle.
More than 40,000 volunteers participated in the Sputnik V clinical study. Among other countries, clinical trials are announced in the UAE, India, Venezuela and Belarus. Vaccine applications were received from over 50 countries, totaling over 1.2 billion doses.
According to the information from the developers, published on the official Twitter account, the effectiveness of the vaccine as a result of the analysis of data at the final checkpoint of clinical trials was confirmed at 91.4%. The effectiveness of the drug against severe cases of COVID-19 is 100%. This means that none of the volunteers fell ill with severe covid. The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) published data, following which 43% of the population believe that the vaccine is of high quality, and 53% believe that the Russian vaccine can stop the epidemic.
Coronavirus vaccination and alcohol: is it safe to drink
There are different opinions about the timing of abstinence from alcohol. At first, Rospotrebnadzor said that alcohol is prohibited for two weeks and within 42 days after vaccination: only 56 days. This is due to the fact that after each vaccination, it is necessary to lay 21 days for the formation of immunity.
Then Alexander Gintsburg, director of the Gamaleya Center, clarified that after vaccination it is recommended to stop drinking alcohol for only three days.
Think health anyway: alcohol and vaccine are incompatible. Ethyl alcohol in alcohol reduces immunity, affects the heart, liver, pancreas, stomach, and gastrointestinal tract. Chronic diseases are also exacerbated.
If you decide to get vaccinated, forget about alcohol for a while or reschedule the process if you can "break". The drug may not work, causing an allergic reaction and complications. Of course, we are talking about serious libations - a bottle of beer or a glass of wine a week after the injection will not lead to critical consequences.
Where to get vaccinated against coronavirus in Moscow
Employees from the risk group were admitted to primary vaccination: medicine, education, culture, trade and services, city social services, centers of public services "My Documents", industry, transport, energy, media, scientific research, hotels and travel agencies and others. The list is constantly expanding.
How much does the Sputnik V vaccination cost?
The cost of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine is approximately 1,000 rubles per dose. But the costs of vaccinating the population are borne by the state. The drug cannot be bought: it goes exclusively to medical institutions, where it is used for its intended purpose.
How many vaccinations were made
Alexander Gintsburg, director of the Gamaleya Center, announced: the start of mass vaccination is planned in January-February 2021. Different regions will introduce their own vaccination schedule for the population. It depends on the location and urgency of the process against the background of the infection. According to official data, more than 1 million vaccinations have already been made in Russia, mainly in Moscow. The leaders in the world are China and the United States.
allergy to any of the components; pregnancy, breastfeeding; minority; exacerbation of a chronic disease; infectious diseases - not earlier than 2 weeks after recovery; liver disease; kidney pathology; endocrine diseases; other vaccinations within the previous 30 days.
On the day of vaccination, it is not recommended to play sports, smoke, eat fatty and fried foods. It is recommended to follow a calm regime.
Vaccination reviews, side effects
At the moment, there are few verified reviews for the drug. In various forums, vaccinated people write that doctors are asked to keep a diary of well-being and report any ailments. During the vaccination process, someone does not feel the injection, while others - at the site of vaccination, it burns, aches, hurts.
The most common side effect, as with other vaccinations, is fever. Also, some have weakness, headache, body aches. These symptoms disappear within 1-3 days. Most tolerate the vaccine without any specific reaction. In general, no serious side effects of the vaccine have been identified at the moment.
How long does the vaccine work?
It is assumed that the coronavirus vaccine forms immunity for at least six months, and most likely for 1-2 years. In the future, re-vaccination may be required, as is the case with influenza, which must be vaccinated against annually. For some, the vaccine may not work due to the characteristics of the body. But experts believe that the percentage of such people is extremely low.
Arguments against vaccination
The main argument of those who are not ready to be vaccinated: distrust of the new drug. A vaccine at the development stage can be dangerous: a poorly studied drug is introduced into the body, which provokes a certain immune response in the body. This can lead to complications.
The second point: only healthy people should be vaccinated. Requirements and research for any vaccine are much more serious and stringent than for drugs. Therefore, verification takes up to several years and the process cannot be accelerated.
For these reasons, the urgent introduction of the drug causes concern and distrust.
Benefits for the vaccinated
The mask must be used in any case: immunity is formed only three weeks after the second injection. And the mask regime, which has been operating in Russia since the end of October, applies to everyone, regardless of whether a person was vaccinated or had a coronavirus. However, Rospotrebnadzor promises the possibility of providing additional freedoms to the vaccinated. The use of vaccination passports for international travel is also being considered.
Why is a placebo administered?
In the third stage of testing, about 40,000 people will take part. Among them, an average of 10,000 people will receive a "dummy drug": a substance without therapeutic effects. This method determines the effectiveness of a medicine.
Vaccination in any city of the country is the choice of every person, there will be no compulsory administration of the drug.
Among the "pioneers" who were vaccinated: Sergei Shoigu, Sergei Sobyanin, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Denis Manturov and Marat Khusnullin, Anna Popova and Tatiana Golikova, Yuri Stoyanov, Rodion Gazmanov, Alexander Myasnikov, Alexey Pivovarov. The latter contracted the coronavirus, despite being vaccinated two months before infection. According to experts, if a person fell ill after vaccination, he was infected at the time of vaccination, or he was injected with a "dummy".
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