Discomfort can be a symptom of a wide variety of medical conditions; painful sensations before, during, or immediately after intercourse are called dyspareunia. Anna Alekseevna Pozdnyakova, a gynecologist-reproductologist of the network of centers of reproduction and genetics "Nova Clinic" (@nova_clinic), spoke in more detail about her.
Many people mistakenly believe that pain, especially mild pain, is worth "enduring." It happens, it's okay, you lie down and it will pass.
In fact, such symptoms can indicate violations, including serious ones.
How hormones affect pain during and after sex
Pain can be associated with the phases of the cycle: such pain often occurs on the eve of menstruation as a result of a drop in estrogen levels and swelling of the whole body. Also, discomfort occurs in connection with hormonal disruption or prolonged use of oral contraceptives.
How "female" diseases or infections affect pain during and after sex
If ailments directly affect the functioning of the female genital organs, they can also cause pain.
Inflammatory diseases of the vulva, vagina and cervix can cause irritation and swelling of the mucous membrane of the external genital organs. With inflammation, in addition to pain, abundant vaginal discharge, itching and burning are sometimes disturbed.
Vulvar skin conditions or allergic reactions (food, pad contact, atopic dermatitis) also cause pain during or after sex.
With inflammation of the mucous membrane (endometritis) and uterine appendages during intercourse, a woman may feel aching pain in the lower abdomen or above the pubis. Moreover, this pain can persist for a long time, even accompanied by an increase in temperature and discharge with an unpleasant odor. With endometritis, bloody discharge may appear. The adhesion process in the small pelvis is the cause of dull aching pains with deep penetration or in certain positions.
Also, sexual intercourse causes discomfort if a woman has cystitis and chronic constipation.
If pain occurs with deep penetration, most often we are talking about endometriosis (proliferation of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus in atypical places and organs). Cervical cancer is often accompanied by pulling pains and smearing discharge after sex (yes, cancer in recent decades is getting younger and occurs even in 20-year-old girls!)
With cysts and tumors of the ovaries during sex, their torsion is possible, as well as rupture of the cyst (apoplexy). In this case, there is a sharp sharp pain, possibly even the appearance of nausea and vomiting.
This life-threatening condition requires urgent hospitalization! Discomfort can arise from vaginal dryness. Its cause can be both the absence or insufficient foreplay, and more serious things - for example, hypotrophy and atrophy of the vulvar mucosa, a quiet epidemic of our time, in which sexual activity becomes impossible.
How does psychological state affect pain during sex?
There are psychogenic diseases that are accompanied by pain during sex, and often lead to them. Previous violence, early onset of sexual activity, mental illness, depression or trauma can all interfere with full relaxation during sex and adequate lubrication, and can also cause diseases such as vaginismus or vulvodynia.
In such cases, you cannot do without the help of a psychotherapist and a neurologist.
How structural features affect pain during sex
Of course, do not forget about the anatomical abnormalities of the pelvic organs (congenital malformations), prolapse of the walls of the vagina, uterus, the consequences of traumatic childbirth (tears, forceps, vacuum), surgical operations on the female genitals (including female circumcision).
In any case, pain is always a symptom of a disorder, therefore, a doctor's consultation is necessary.