Nutritionists around the world recognize the benefits of a balanced diet. According to generally accepted norms, it is important to correctly combine proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, trace elements and fats. At the same time, disputes about the latter do not subside in the medical community. Which fats are healthier - vegetable or animal? Does an excess of one type raise the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood? Practicing nutritionists, in an interview with NEWS.ru, dispelled popular myths.
In the diet of residents of Russia and many European countries, there is an excess of omega-6 fatty acids. They are found in vegetable oils: sunflower, soybean, corn, explained nutritionist, MD Mikhail Ginzburg. People fry food, add oil to salads and baked goods - this is a feature of European cuisine. Overdose can lead to serious health problems.
Too much omega-6 interferes with the absorption of other fatty acids such as omega-3. These are elements irreplaceable for the body. They are found in fish, flaxseed oil. Acids are involved in the construction of membranes of cells of organs and tissues, help in the functioning of the immune system. Adequate amounts of omega-3s have been shown to increase life span. Another danger of high concentrations of omega-6 in the body is chronic inflammation.
Author: Mikhail Ginzburg [MD, nutritionist]
They are precursors to a number of pro-inflammatory molecules. An excess of these fatty acids leads to a number of bad things, such as chronic low-intensity inflammation, accelerated aging, and a tendency to depression.
In European countries, especially with cold climates, it is customary to eat a lot of fatty meat. Even 10 years ago, any doctor would have said that it is dangerous for the health of the heart and blood vessels.
The predominance of good vegetable fats in food is better than the predominance of animals. That is, it is better to have more olive oil than lard, says the nutritionist.
Today there is evidence that an excess of animal fats does not raise the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood. However, if a person does not like meat and consumes little animal fats, this is also not harmful to health. According to Ginzburg, the lack of these substances for the body is "not critical." Therefore, the chances of staying healthy for a meat-eater and a vegetarian are about the same.
Vegetable fats are one of the most useful products for the body, even an excess of them does not have a detrimental effect, nutritionist Yevgeny Arzamastsev disagrees with his colleague. These components remove "bad" cholesterol from the blood, preventing it from being deposited on the vessels. But fats of animal origin, on the contrary, increase its level. Therefore, do not overly lean on meat, especially in old age.
Doctors consider trans fats (fats with a modified chemical formula) to be truly dangerous to health. They are found in margarine and all products that contain it. The chemical elements contained in trans fats replace the molecules of the "correct" lipids. Because of this, the hormonal and enzyme systems of the body are harmed. Toxins accumulate in organs and tissues. The risk of developing many diseases increases - cancer, cardiovascular pathologies.
Even healthy vegetable fats from oils can be transformed into components with the "trans" prefix, doctors warn. This happens in two cases - during long storage and heat treatment of the product, said Arzamastsev. Therefore, frying in a large amount of oil is not recommended. Better to give it up altogether and buy a special frying pan.It is also important to observe the shelf life: if the product starts to taste bitter, it must be sent to the garbage chute.