Unwillingness to work, constant drowsiness and apathy - these symptoms can indicate anemia. This condition is associated with a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. There are a lot of causes of anemia - from hidden bleeding to a lack of meat in the diet. If this ailment is not treated, then it can result in severe internal diseases and lead to death during childbirth. Doctors told NEWS.ru about the signs of anemia, which affects about 30% of women and 10% of men in Russia.
Human blood consists of three main elements - erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, as well as plasma (liquid medium). The first ones contain the iron-containing protein hemoglobin, which stains the blood red. In addition, it is hemoglobin that carries oxygen through organs and tissues, as well as carbon dioxide. With anemia, the amount of this protein in red blood cells is reduced, so oxygen starvation begins in the body. Corresponding symptoms appear.
Pallor of the skin, a tendency to bruising, constant weakness, decreased performance and concentration of attention, dizziness - according to these signs, anemia can be suspected. It is worth sounding the alarm if the hemoglobin level is below 120 g / l in women and 130 g / l in men. For pregnant women, this figure should be at least 110 g / l.
About 30% of women and 10% of men in Russia suffer from anemia. This condition is characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and a decrease in the hemoglobin content in a unit of blood volume, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Hospital Therapy of the Medical Faculty of the RUDN University, Doctor-Hematologist Nikolai Stuklov, told NEWS.ru. The most common is iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which is diagnosed in 40-50% of patients, most of whom are women.
Author: Nikolay Stuklov [hematologist, Doctor of Medicine, Professor of the Department of Hospital Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, RUDN University]
In women, due to menstrual function, there is an imbalance between the incoming iron and its loss. More often this is a sign of some undiagnosed disease of the female reproductive system - polyp, uterine fibroids, endometriosis.
Errors in nutrition are one of the reasons for IDA, this ailment is two to three times more common among residents of developing countries, Stuklov noted. To prevent anemia, you need to eat at least 100-200 grams of red meat daily.
The myth is widespread among vegetarians that many plant products can cover the body's need for iron, Natalya Andreeva, a physician and hematologist, added in an interview with NEWS.ru. Indeed, this trace mineral is found in spinach, cashews, beans and chocolate. But the bioavailability of iron in plants is extremely low, so they cannot replace meat with them.
The second most common after IDA is anemia of chronic diseases. It is diagnosed in 25-30% of patients. It is a serious illness that disrupts the production of hemoglobin in the body. Anemia of chronic diseases occurs with cancer, rheumatism, tuberculosis, severe cardiovascular diseases, hepatitis, AIDS. In third place is anemia associated with bleeding, which is detected in 15% of patients. It occurs with injuries, ulcers, bleeding internal tumors.
In a significant number of cases, anemia is associated with the presence of hemorrhoids, Andreeva said. Its prevalence is 118-120 people per thousand of the adult population. Already at the second stage of the disease in humans, blood is constantly excreted from the rectum during defecation.If the disease is not treated, then after a year or two, iron stores in the blood decrease and anemia occurs.
Lead intoxication is another cause of anemia, the doctor said. Some types of paints used to coat pottery contain this metal. There is not only constant poisoning of the body, but also a decrease in the level of hemoglobin. For this reason, if anemia is detected, attention should be paid to the plates from which food is consumed.
A large number of cases of anemia in Russia remain undiagnosed, Nikolai Stuklov said. Most often, anemia is detected when a woman is tested during pregnancy. Men endure for years, sin on fatigue and laziness.
Anemia causes oxygen deprivation, hence - heart failure and severe brain dysfunctions. Women with anemia and their children are more likely to die during childbirth, Stuklov said.
If anemia develops in the body of cancer patients and in patients who have suffered heart attacks or strokes, then it worsens the prognosis of the disease. In addition, anemia makes the development of concomitant pathologies more difficult, the doctor added.
First of all, it is necessary to cure the disease due to which anemia has occurred, for example, remove hemorrhoids or remove uterine fibroids. Also, to improve the condition of the blood, doctors prescribe iron-containing drugs. You need to adjust your diet and include meat in your daily diet.
For the timely diagnosis of anemia, it is necessary to undergo an annual examination for the level of hemoglobin content. If anemia is detected, you should definitely consult a doctor, as it is a sign of a latent disease.