People are divided into three types. Asthenics, hypersthenics and normasthenics. These are three types of physique. They differ in metabolic rate, in the ratio of fat to muscle tissue, and in bone width. People of the first type are thin by definition, the second are fat, and the third are normally built. Doctors say that "natural" settings can be easily knocked out. How to "ruin" a slender figure and improve a full one, News.ru figured out.
What does a person of asthenic body type look like? Type in the name of any top model in the search engine. Naomi Campbell, Miranda Kerr, Kate Moss. Asthenic is natural thinness, thin bone, elongated face, narrow chest, long legs and arms. Such people find it difficult to acquire fat, but it is not easy for them to gain muscle mass either. They have a very fast metabolism.
Hypersthenic is the complete opposite of asthenic. They are eternal fat men. A striking example is the Soviet actress Natalya Krachkovskaya. They have a wide skeleton, short limbs, rounded shapes. Hypersthenics joke to themselves: "I look at a bun and I am already recovering." They gain excess weight very quickly, but lose weight with difficulty. The metabolism of hypersthenics is slow.
The normasthenic combines the features of an asthenic and a hypersthenic. This type is most represented among athletes. Elena Isinbaeva, Maria Sharapova, Anna Kournikova are typical normists. They have a proportionate muscle figure that is naturally well developed. The amount of body fat in normosthenics is average, as is the metabolism. To stay slim, they need to avoid overeating and exercise. The first is the hardest thing to do - normostenics usually have a brutal appetite.
In sports, the listed types of constitution are called differently - ectomorph (asthenic), mesomorph (normal) and endomorph (hypersthenic). Depending on belonging to one type or another, you should eat and exercise in a certain way.
Many people think that the type of constitution is destiny. Born hypersthenic - doomed to be a bun. Asthenic - you can eat anything and stay slim. Doctors are protesting - this is only the basis. What your body will look like depends on your diet, sports activity and related diseases.
- The hypersthenic will remain broad-boned, but will be able to keep fit. Slenderness depends on how intensely proteins, fats and carbohydrates are oxidized, and how much energy a person consumes, '' said Olga Grigoryan, a leading researcher at the Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Ph.D.
People with this type of constitution are doomed to play sports and stick to proper nutrition, otherwise they will become very fat.
- Endomorphs (or hypersthenics) not only gain muscle easily, but also fat. And, ceasing to monitor nutrition, as well as reducing physical activity, they very quickly gain weight and become seriously ill people with diabetes and hypertension, - endocrinologist, nutritionist, nutritionist Alexei Kalinchev makes a verdict.
Ectomorphs are also not protected from extra pounds. Fast food and lack of sports in them will lead to overweight and many diseases - disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, atherosclerosis.
- Over the years, many ectomorphs transform into Skinny Fat. This is a type of constitution when, with a sharp muscle deficiency, there is an excess of adipose tissue. This is the most difficult type of constitution to correct. Such skinny young ladies may have hormonal disorders, as in obese patients, - said Alexey Kalinchev.
Normstenics usually gain weight with age. Young people are protected from obesity by muscles that are developed in people with this type of constitution.
- Muscles consume a lot of energy. If a person has a lot of muscles, it is easier for him to stay slim, they increase his basal metabolism. If he overeats a little, he can get away with it. But after 30 years, the metabolism begins to decline by 10% every ten years. A person is gradually gaining weight, - said dietitian Sergei Oblozhko.
According to the doctor Alexei Kalinchev, there are very few people with "pure" types of constitution, mostly mixed. For example, “the top will be from the endomorph, and the bottom from the ectomorph. Or vice versa". The doctor advises - if someone wants to better understand their type, you can use online calculators on the Internet.