How To Protect Carrot Fields From Nematodes In The Absence Of Methyl Bromide

How To Protect Carrot Fields From Nematodes In The Absence Of Methyl Bromide
How To Protect Carrot Fields From Nematodes In The Absence Of Methyl Bromide

Video: How To Protect Carrot Fields From Nematodes In The Absence Of Methyl Bromide

Video: Methyl Bromide Toxicity, A Review of Occupational and Environmental Health 2022, December
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“Twelve percent of all crop losses caused by pests can be attributed to nematodes, representing an annual cash loss of US $ 157 billion,” the authors write. - This is especially true for nematodes belonging to the genus Meloidogyne, which is considered the most important genus of plant parasitic nematodes worldwide.

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For farmers, any type of chemical control of soil-borne nematodes is a challenge.

The emergence of nematodes in the lower levels of the soil profile forces producers to use conventional nematicides at the highest recommended concentrations and doses. Another problem is the overall reduction in the amount of available traditional nematicides and the lack of development of new effective substances for plant protection against plant parasitic nematodes. For example, as of 2020, only two conventional nematicides (dazomet and oxamil) were available for use in open fields in the Czech Republic. Other aspects that hinder the routine use of nematicides are considered to be high prices for these substances and the risks that their use poses to the environment, especially for groundwater reservoirs.

Methyl bromide was used as a soil fumigant to eradicate Meloidogyne sp. before it was banned for most purposes worldwide. Unfortunately, there is currently no full-fledged alternative to methyl bromide, although a number of substitutes are being investigated: dichloropropene, chloropicrin, metolachlor, trifloxysulfuron, metha-potassium, iodomethane, dimethyldisulfide, 1,3-dichloropropene, fluenesulfone, fluopyram or fostiazate. Of these, ethanedinitrile (EDN) deserves special attention, as it is a broad-spectrum fumigant with herbicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal and nematicidal effects. Several studies have documented high activity of EDN against several nematode species such as Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Steinernemcarpocapsae. Due to its broad spectrum pesticidal activity, EDN can be an effective presowing fumigant.

However, its effectiveness against nematodes-pests of various crops in the field has not been fully confirmed and studied.

Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of two concentrations of EDN on the survival rate of northern root nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla), as well as the yield and quality of carrots in the field.

The assessment was carried out using areas with natural infestation of carrots, after which, after applying EDN to the soil, the treated area was covered with a film.

A high biological effect was observed for both EDN concentrations tested, with an even lower dose (30 g / m2) sufficient to inhibit M. hapla. Positive effects of EDN were also observed - probably due to partial conversion of EDN to bioavailable nitrogen in the soil - on carrot root weights compared to untreated controls.

Carrot samples from the experimental field: () - untreated control, (B) - untreated control, covered with TIF film, (C) - applied EDN 30 g / m 2, (D) - applied EDN 50 g / m 2.

Our findings indicate that EDN represents a promising alternative to methyl bromide.

The significant effect of EDN treatment on nematode viability, easy soil penetration, degradation into non-toxic products and fertilization effects resulting from decomposition products make it ideal for controlling the presence of M. hapl in soil.

In addition, it has recently been found that EDN does not accumulate in soil and cannot contaminate groundwater.However, the acute toxicity of the substance prevents untrained and unlicensed farmers from fumigating the soil on their own. These procedures should be performed by experienced personnel equipped with appropriate field equipment and protective equipment. Finally, such treatment should be used as a pre-sowing sanitation measure in areas with strong M. Hapla infestation."

(Source: www.mdpi.com. Authors: Ondrej Douda, Mari Manasova, Miloslav Zuhar, Jonas Gnatek, Vaclav Steiskal).

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