Many joggers are of the opinion that slow running is a warm-up in itself. They neglect to warm up and make a big mistake. In order for the training to be productive and safe, SBU is needed - these are special running exercises that are done before class as a warm-up.
The role of these exercises is to work out those indicators that will be required from the body in the main training session. They serve the same function as any set of exercises designed for the gym. The added value of these elements lies in the acquisition of new skills. Even professional runners use warm-ups to practice their technique.
General running exercises
In addition to special ones, general running exercises are distinguished - OBU, their purpose is in the uniform development of physical indicators. For example, if a runner is preparing for a 100-meter distance, then in training he will work on developing indicators of strength and speed. But in addition to the target qualities, others need to be developed; for this, general running exercises are done. Also, OBU is used in order to warm up the muscular system and tone the body before exertion.
For runners of different levels, the ratio of SBU and OBU in the warm-up will be different.
Special exercises have a narrow focus, that is, they affect specific indicators, while general ones are responsible for the holistic development of the body.
The tasks of the SBU
When performing specific exercises, runners have three objectives:
A small amount of SBU is used to prepare the muscles that will receive the maximum load during training.
Correction of errors - incorrect running technique, inaccuracies of movements. In this case, the representation of special exercises in the warm-up will also be low, the runner must work out problematic moments in the technique, but at the same time remain full of strength before the main workout.
Developing a specific quality that will come in handy in competition. For example, to increase the indicators of strength and speed, the SBU will use distances of 30-60 or 100 meters. These distances are covered at the fastest possible pace and at least ten repetitions.
In one of the workouts, one or two of the listed goals are pursued. At the same time, training specific indicators and working on mistakes are never combined in one lesson.
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The best special exercises
Among the special exercises, several are basic, and are used by runners all over the world, regardless of specialization and skill level. Everyone who runs should master this base.
Running with knees up
Targets the muscles in the front of the thigh, while doing it, runners stand on their toes, thereby also working out the muscles of the lower leg. It is important to raise your knees high enough, your thigh should be parallel to the ground or slightly higher. At first, running on tiptoes will be unusual, but a little later, the skill necessary for passing medium and short distances appears.
It is equally important to maintain a straight back position, the body is slightly tilted forward, but posture should be maintained. The priority is the correct technique; they switch to increasing the intensity only at the moment when the performance becomes ideal.
Running with an overwhelming lower leg
This exercise works on the back of the thighs, it should be performed before or after the previous one to evenly work out the antagonist muscles. The shins should be raised so high that the heels touch the buttocks. It is performed on toes, as with raising the knees, correct technique is very important.
Roll from heel to toe
Targets the muscles and ligaments in the feet, engages the Achilles tendon to contract the muscles in the thigh and lower leg. It is performed at a measured pace, when rolling from heel to toe, you need to rise as high as possible.
Jumping from foot to foot
They are called multi-jumps, jumps should be long, then they can strengthen the triceps ankle muscle and quadriceps muscle of the thigh. The leg pushes off the ground and then straightens, the second leg at this time will be bent at the knee. To achieve the result, it is performed in a large number of repetitions.
When performing these jumps, attention is focused on height, this is done to work out the flexors of the foot. In terms of technique, the exercise is very similar to rolling from heel to toe, only at the end of the movement you need to push off strongly and jump in height. For the push to be more powerful, you need to spring not only with your foot, but also with a slightly bent knee.
Running with straight knees
It is performed dynamically, but in relation to the muscles of the thigh and lower leg it is static. The legs are completely straight, the toes are extended. The foot falls on the ground with the entire surface, you need to push off the ground quickly enough. Running with straight knees is very unusual for the body; not only the body is trained, but also the coordination of movements.
To perform, you need to take your leg back and put it on your toes, then push off and do the same with the second leg. The pushing force should be moderate, if you push off too vigorously, you can lose balance and fall.
Cross step running
It involves many muscles, not only the lower limbs, but also the back, pelvis. You need to move sideways to one and the other side alternately. In this variation of running, the arms should not move in time with the legs. When a step is made to the side, the working leg is wound behind the supporting leg, the steps are crossed. You need to run with a side cross step on your toes.
Also called running a bicycle, the movements will be similar to running with high knees, but they will have to be lifted even higher, the execution will be longer. The difference is that when the knee rises to the top, the shin comes forward. The foot is then placed on the ground on the toe, a raking motion is obtained.
Special running exercises
The exercises listed above are the same for any of the areas of running sports and distances of any length. In contrast, special exercises are aimed at solving specific problems, for example, developing technique or strength.
Special exercises are selected to improve:
A sense of balance.
The ability to run in a straight line.
Correct setting of the feet.
Strength of the back and core muscles.
Sense of rhythm.
It is necessary to choose special exercises taking into account the skills that need to be developed and those elements of the technique in which mistakes are often made. The choice of exercises for the special part of the warm-up is best done with a trainer, this is the only way to achieve the best results. The effect of performing special running exercises for warm-up comes gradually, do not expect that several workouts will not bring tangible results.