"Brought Skin Cancer From Thailand." Oncologist About The Dangers Of The Sun And Myths About Melanoma

"Brought Skin Cancer From Thailand." Oncologist About The Dangers Of The Sun And Myths About Melanoma
"Brought Skin Cancer From Thailand." Oncologist About The Dangers Of The Sun And Myths About Melanoma

Video: "Brought Skin Cancer From Thailand." Oncologist About The Dangers Of The Sun And Myths About Melanoma

Video: Skin Cancer: Prevention, Warning Signs and Treatment Options 2022, November
Anonim

Skin cancer and melanoma are among the most common cancers today. Only prevention and self-diagnostics can reduce the sad statistics. Alexander Kazmin, a surgeon-dermatooncologist of the first category, head of the oncology department of Voronezh Oncology Dispensary 2, told "AiF-Chernozemye" how to independently calculate melanoma and protect yourself from a terrible disease.

Image
Image

It's time to sound the alarm

Faina Mania, AiF-Chernozemye: Alexander Ivanovich, can a person independently diagnose melanoma or skin cancer?

Alexander Kazmin: Of course it can, because this disease is visible. These are long-term non-healing formations on the skin that ulcerate, heal, and become covered with a crust. And so in a circle. As for melanoma, these are mainly pigmented formations that are formed either on clean skin and differ from existing moles, or there is a sharp change in the old mole - its color, shape, size, soreness and bleeding appear. When a person sees a new dark spot on his skin, even 5-6 mm, which gradually begins to grow, you should immediately consult a doctor. There is a completely painless procedure - dermatoscopy, which allows using a special device to examine the skin under magnification and identify signs characteristic of a malignant formation. You can confirm melanoma, or, conversely, refute it. But the most important thing is to prescribe treatment on time. Fortunately, there are fewer and fewer such patients who do not pay attention to the grown mole. It is important that not only doctors of different specialties - dentists, cosmetologists, dermatologists and others - can correctly diagnose formations, but patients themselves are vigilant. Studies conducted in other countries of the world have shown that self-diagnosis in this problem leads to the fact that the disease begins to be detected more often in the early stages. There are fewer patients with advanced forms, thereby increasing the chances of recovery. We have many such patients who sought help at an early stage, they were operated on, and the treatment ended happily there.

- It turns out that there are no latent forms of the disease in melanoma?

- It can be disguised only in certain dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis or dermatitis of a certain form. In these cases, the ulcers characteristic of skin cancer are outwardly similar to the above diseases. And here it is just important that the attending dermatologist take an analysis from this area of ​​the skin in a timely manner, establish a diagnosis and, if necessary, send it to the oncologist for treatment.

Sunbathe in the shade

- How to protect yourself from a dangerous disease?

- The most important thing is the correct daily routine in the summer. You need to hide from the sun in the shade, protect yourself with clothes and creams. Do not forget about vitamins that increase the overall immune system. As for vitamin D3, it must be produced gradually in the skin. Overweight and bad habits also provoke the disease.

- So it’s better not to sunbathe at all?

- You can sunbathe only early in the morning and in the evening - after 5-6 hours. In general, it is best to sunbathe in the shade under an umbrella and smear with sunscreen. But you need to understand that you should not rely only on the cream - it does not protect the skin by 100%. Only physical factors can protect - clothes, hat, glasses, shade.

It is important that the sun should be introduced into the diet gradually.Why is there an increased risk of skin cancer after a winter trip to Thailand or any other hot country? For this very reason. Under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, certain genetic abnormalities occur in skin cells. When a person is burned, the risk of developing melanoma becomes higher in the future. Yes, vitamin D3, which is normally produced in the skin under the influence of the same ultraviolet radiation, is able to protect. But often it just does not have time to work out before we burn. High incidence of melanoma in the Scandinavian countries - Sweden, Finland. After all, they live in the north and they do not have much sun, get sunburned. What is the reason? Just because they travel a lot, go to hot countries, where they quickly burn. Studies have shown a direct relationship between the disease and the level of vitamin D3 in the skin. Therefore, when we fly to a hot country or even prepare for the summer season, we do not rush into the sun on the very first day. Let the skin gradually get used to it, then vitamin D3 will have time to be developed and will further protect the skin from burning. After all, even if you were burned in childhood, it can come back to haunt in 10, 15, 20 years.

- How quickly does melanoma develop?

- Quite quickly - over several years. But skin cancer can develop for decades. You ask a patient with oncology: "Do you like to sunbathe?" And he answered: "I used to love, but for the last 10 years I have not been out in the sun at all." Here is an example of how love for the sun backfired years later. It is necessary to instill this from childhood. In Australia, for example, the program has been run at the state level since the 1980s. In kindergartens, cartoons are shown in which they teach how to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation. There is even a slogan "spread with cream, dress and hide in the shade." Thanks to this program, the vigilance of the population has increased, the incidence of skin cancer has decreased. As a result, their early detection of the disease is much better than ours.

- Who is at risk of the disease?

- People with the first and second skin phototype - fair skin, light or red hair, blue-eyed, with freckles. Also at risk are those who have had skin cancer or melanoma in their family or relatives. Unfortunately, quite often the disease is inherited at the genetic level. Moreover, in addition to sunburn, chemical or thermal burns affect the risk of developing the disease. Long-term treatment with radiation therapy can lead to the development of skin cancer.

"You need to be careful with the solarium"

- You can't rip off a mole, otherwise you will die. Is this a myth or a truth?

- A mole can be safely removed if there are medical or cosmetic indications for it. Of course, in this case, it is imperative to first consult a doctor. If this mole is normal, then removing it will not lead to anything bad. And when a person waited for the development of melanoma, thinking that this is an ordinary mole, then it may be too late to remove it.

- Alexander Ivanovich, is it harmful to visit solariums?

- You can use the solarium, but be careful. The main thing is not to overdo it. Be sure to ask your administrator when the lamps were last changed and if they have certificates. Each lamp has a certain operating time, at which changes in the ultraviolet spectrum occur. The effect on the skin and its further regeneration depends on this. If we go back to skin phototypes, then blondes and redheads are better off abstaining. And if you still went to the solarium, then you need to start with the minimum time, increase it gradually. By the way, for some dermatological diseases, a solarium is necessary for patients for medical reasons. But if you started going to the solarium and saw negative changes on the skin, you should immediately stop the procedure and consult a doctor. In general, in some foreign countries, the solarium was banned after it was proved that with the advent of the solarium, the incidence of skin cancer increased.In our country, such a study has not been carried out.

Another curious fact that was revealed during studies in Europe is that after drying the gel polish with ultraviolet lamps, the risk of developing subungual melanoma increased. Now, however, mainly modern LED lamps are used. They are still relatively safe. So, when you go for a manicure, ask what lamps you use to dry your nails. Ultraviolet, as well as in tanning salons, should be periodically changed.

- Are cosmetic procedures for the face - peelings, for example?

- On clean skin and if there are no moles on the face, then everything is fine. And if there are moles on which hair grows, chemical peeling is not recommended. He can lead to her rebirth. And in any case, do not pull the hairs from the mole. They can only be carefully trimmed with nail scissors, but not pulled out.

The main thing is attitude

- Can skin cancer be considered a verdict?

- Of course not. There are many positive examples when people overcome the disease. And here a lot depends not even on the doctor and the prescribed medications, but on the patient's mood. I have seen many times in my practice when a patient lowered his hands, and he had a rapid progression in the initial stages. And there are also opposite examples, when patients live for years with metastatic melanoma as people, for example, with diabetes mellitus. A person's positive attitude towards recovery leads to the fact that the body itself fights the disease. By the way, new immuno-oncological drugs are aimed at starting the immune system to fight altered cancer cells. That is, it turns out that it is not the drug that fights cancer, but our immune system is triggered. What's in a person's head can also trigger the immune system. A positive attitude adds interest to recovery. You can't shut yourself up. There are even groups on social networks where patients with the same disease communicate with each other. It is important that the attending physician instills hope. If he carries negative, then it is better to contact another specialist. We understand that even if it is no longer possible to cure the patient, it is necessary to alleviate, not aggravate his condition.

By the way

You can consult with oncologists free of charge in absentia without leaving your home. People can take a photo of a mole or growth on the skin and send it via social media to doctors. In response, they will be given a preliminary opinion and advised whether it is necessary to contact specialists on this issue or not. Instagram profile - oncodermatologist.

Popular by topic