How it all began Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin AV Vitamin E Vitamins of the B group Vitamin K
In Okad Leningrad, tea made from pine needles helped people survive severe frosts. The fragrant drink contained a shock dose of vitamin C. In an extreme situation, in the absence of medication, a powerful antioxidant helped people survive. What role do vitamins play in our life? Where are these valuable substances found and is it true that they can reduce the risks of colds and flu?
How it all began?
The "discoverer" of vitamins and the founder of the doctrine of them was the Russian scientist, Doctor of Medicine Nikolai Ivanovich Lunin. It was he who established that in our food, in addition to water, salts, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, there are other valuable substances that are indispensable for nutrition.
Unfortunately, during the defense of the researcher's dissertation, the Scientific Council expressed skepticism about his discovery. Lunin's role in science and medicine has been underestimated.
The term "vitamin" was introduced by another scientist - Polish biochemist Kazimir Funk. In 1912, he translated into English the Latin words vital amines, which are interpreted as "amines of life."
day about what vitamins every student knows. Let's talk about what products are best for getting a "vitamin supplement" in winter!
"The highest content of vitamin C is in lemons," an inquisitive student would say, and would be wrong.
Today it is difficult to say where the myth about citrus as the record holder for vitamin C came from and why many of us consider lemons to be the main source of ascorbic acid in winter. In fact, rose hips are the champions in vitamin content. 100 g of dried fruits as much as 1200 mg of useful ascorbic acid.
Other Russian “delicacies” include cranberries, blueberries, black currants, sea buckthorn, red rowan berries and apples.
Did you know?
One of the most serious diseases that claimed the lives of millions of sailors in the 13th century was scurvy. Its second name is "sea scourge". This disease occurs due to an acute lack of vitamin C in the body.
To save the life of his crew on long voyages, the explorer James Cook prepared spruce beer with sugar right on the ship. He also introduced sauerkraut and citrus fruits to the sailors' menus.
Vitamin D is produced in our body under the influence of the sun. But in the cold season, solar activity is low and even long winter walks cannot always make up for the daily norm. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the vitamin D content in the diet. To do this, it is useful to have breakfast with scrambled eggs, prepare sandwiches with butter and cheese, pamper yourself with natural red caviar, drink whole milk and yogurt, and do not forget about a proven remedy - fish oil.
The sunshine vitamin not only plays an important role in supporting the immune system and preventing seasonal depression, but also promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
Vitamin A, or beta-carotene, is a beneficial antioxidant that ensures sharp eyesight and healthy skin and hair. It has a beneficial effect on the immune system, contributing to early recovery from lingering illnesses. Among other things, this vitamin helps maintain bone strength and may reduce the risk of fractures after accidental falls on slippery ice in winter.
Carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes, pumpkin and turnips, persimmons, egg yolks, and sunflower oil are high in vitamin A.
Did you know?
For each of the 13 vitamins known to scientists, its own daily rate is determined - the amount that the human body should receive daily.An excess of vitamins is just as dangerous as a deficiency! History knows cases when prolonged excess of the daily norm undermined human health and led to intoxication. But a single excess of the dosage of vitamins can also become fatal!
The Eskimos, enraged by bitter experience, after having killed the bear and butchered its carcass, buried the animal's liver deep in the ground. They never ate it themselves or gave it to pets. The fact is that it contains a huge amount of vitamin A, and if you eat it whole, it will lead to severe poisoning and possibly death.
If solving a simple problem takes several times longer than usual, you should think about replenishing vitamin E in the body.
Its deficiency noticeably affects the work of the brain and the speed of reaction, but a sufficient amount, on the contrary, increases the ability to work, improves blood circulation and increases the protective functions of the body.
This is a whole complex of vitamins that play a significant role in cellular metabolism. They are necessary to maintain a person's mental health and physical endurance, speedy recovery of the body, excellent mood and well-being, high energy.
Most often, experts talk about vitamin B12 deficiency. It is observed in vegetarians who refuse to eat animal foods. They should definitely take vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement.
Various B vitamins can be found in liver, meat (pork, beef, lamb), beans, cabbage, potatoes, carrots, nuts, egg yolks, bran, and dark green leafy vegetables.
Did you know?
complexion, loss of energy and bags under the eyes All of these symptoms may indicate a deficiency of iron in the body. If so, special attention should be paid to vitamin B9 - folic acid. It promotes the absorption of iron and improves well-being. In addition, it is a very important vitamin for women during pregnancy and throughout pregnancy. The best sources of vitamin B9 are buckwheat, oysters, dates, apples, and beef.
Without this vitamin, a person's life would hardly be long. Vitamin K plays a key role in blood clotting, reduces bone loss and prevents bone fractures. An adult needs about 0.001 mg of vitamin K per day for each kilogram of his weight. Experts call it "the best insurance" for winter sports.
Vitamin K is found in all types of cabbage, green leafy vegetables, cucumbers, prunes, and vegetable oils.
Butskaya, pediatrician, organizer of the "Marathon for maternity hospitals", founder of the People's Prize for Children's Products "Parents' Choice" in Russia:
I always say that strengthening immunity and health is not a one-time event, but a way of life. Therefore, rushing to drink vitamins by winter, by spring is wrong. You should try to get the necessary and sufficient amount of vitamins throughout the year, because it is not just one vitamin or microelement that is responsible for immunity, but their overall balance in the body!
Therefore, take care of a sufficient intake of vitamin C. It strengthens the walls of blood vessels, which is especially important in the SARS and influenza season, since viruses enter the body through the blood. There is a lot of vitamin C in sauerkraut, citrus fruits, rose hips, sea buckthorn, beef, black currant, kiwi.
Vitamins of group B. Participate in metabolic processes, have a beneficial effect on the skin and mucous membranes, hair condition, normalize the functioning of the nervous system, which is especially important in the cold and dark seasons. B vitamins are found in liver, beef, fish, whole grain flour, spinach, broccoli, legumes, plums, dairy products, corn, and garlic.
Iron! A lack of iron creates an imbalance throughout the body! Anemia is a very dangerous disease. Women are especially susceptible to it due to the regular loss of blood during menstruation. Iron is involved in hematopoiesis, oxygen transport. There is a lot of iron in red meat, liver, apples, buckwheat, tomatoes.
Vitamin A. It has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin and mucous membranes, vision, hormonal and musculoskeletal system. Vitamin A is abundant in orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, liver, eggs.
Vitamin D. Strengthens bone tissue, regulates the hormonal and immune systems. Adequate vitamin D intake in children is very important! Since we live in a strip with practically no sun, the lack of this vitamin is observed in almost every second person. There is a lot of vitamin D in seafood and liver, eggs, butter, but I recommend taking this vitamin in addition.
Omega-3. They have an anti-inflammatory effect, have a beneficial effect on the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Omega-3s are abundant in fatty fish.
Vitamin E. Beneficial effect on skin, hair, nails, reproductive and hormonal systems of the body. There is a lot of vitamin E in nuts and seeds.
Egovna Eliashevich, therapist, nutritionist of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "National Medical Research Center of Preventive Medicine":
There is a misconception: vitamins are found only in vegetables and fruits. In fact, meat and offal, fish, vegetable oils, dairy products - they all contain certain vitamins. Therefore, the winter diet of the average city dweller should not be fundamentally different from his diet in spring, summer or autumn. Regardless of the season, the main requirement for the diet is its balance both in macronutrient composition (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) and in trace element composition and vitamins. The goal of maintaining such a balance is to choose such a nutritional system so that the body receives all the substances it needs for normal functioning.
First of all, there should be enough protein in the diet (there is no gradation of protein in food depending on the season). On average, this is 1 gram of protein with a high biological value per 1 kg of body weight. Protein must be required 3 times a day at all main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and make up 100-150 grams of products (low-fat cottage cheese, lean poultry and animal meat, river and sea fish). All of these foods also contain a number of vitamins.
In addition, complex carbohydrates (cereals, pasta from durum wheat, vegetables and fruits) and fats should not be excluded from the diet. It is better to give preference to vegetable oils - olive, flaxseed, corn, etc. Their choice today is quite large, they satisfy the needs of our body in fats and also contain a number of vitamins and healthy fatty acids Omega-3 and Omega-6. But here it is worth remembering: frying is the only non-dietary cooking method. Therefore, when choosing an oil, you should pay attention to what purposes it is intended for.
Speaking about which foods contain the maximum number of trace elements and various minor substances that the body should receive, it must be said about nuts. They must be in our diet, especially in winter. But we must remember that this is a "piece" product, and the norm for an ordinary person who is not an adherent of vegetarianism is about 20 grams of nuts per day. These are 7 walnuts without shell, 15 pieces of almonds. It can be any nuts, the main thing is to know "your zhmenka".
Dried fruits are an equally "piece" product. But, although they are rich in vitamins and other useful substances, they should not be abused, since they contain a lot of sugar. The average dosage is 7 dried fruits per day.
An important issue is the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits. All year round, we can see a wide range of them on store shelves.These are both seasonal fruits and vegetables and those grown in warm countries. And as for imported fruits and vegetables, the situation with them is not entirely unambiguous. It is believed that tropical fruits are not completely absorbed by the body, because our biochemical processes are genetically adjusted to our usual living conditions, including food. However, these data are still controversial and in this issue, the "I" has not yet been dotted.
However, in any case, vegetables and fruits are a source of soluble and insoluble fiber, which prevents the absorption of excess fats and sugars, and also helps to normalize the intestinal microflora. According to modern recommendations, a person should consume about 400 grams of vegetables and 400 grams of fruits per day. As for juices, unfortunately, they cannot fully replace fruits and vegetables. For example, it will be more beneficial to eat two oranges than to drink even freshly squeezed juice from them. Because when juicing is made, healthy fiber is thrown away. Packaged juices, as a rule, belong to the category of reconstituted juices made from concentrate.
From fresh fruits and vegetables, those that have a high glycemic index should be avoided (this applies to a greater extent to those people who are obese and type 2 diabetes). It characterizes the ability of certain foods to cause a sharp jump in blood glucose levels. For example, grapes, bananas, figs, sweet persimmons, and surprisingly, zucchini. They also belong to foods with a high glycemic index (GI), although they contain many useful substances, including vitamins. Citrus fruits, currants, cranberries, lingonberries, apples, sauerkraut will be a good choice in terms of low GI and the availability of vitamins.
Valentinovna Trifonova, nutritionist:
A decrease in immunity and overwork in the cold season can provoke a deficiency of vitamins of group B. They work, as a rule, in a complex. If you complain of rapid fatigue, irritability, insomnia, frequent colds, and moreover, if your hemoglobin is low, then most likely you have a deficiency of this particular group.
Lack of vitamin C can also adversely affect performance and well-being. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that is responsible for good immunity. Without it, the normal life of the body is impossible.
In addition to a lack of vitamins, mineral imbalances can provoke increased fatigue. First of all, it is iodine deficiency. It is vital for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland and, as a result, hormonal regulation of protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Signs of iodine deficiency are drowsiness, irritability, low concentration and memory impairment, decreased immunity.
Also, important microelements that provide energy to the body are magnesium and zinc: they provide protein biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and take part in enzymatic processes. Their lack is indicated by increased nervousness, insomnia, impaired appetite, pain in muscles and joints.
However, if you find yourself with alarming symptoms, do not rush to the pharmacy right away! An objective picture can only be revealed by a doctor with the help of special tests.