Deciphering The General Blood Test In Adults And The Norm Of Values

Deciphering The General Blood Test In Adults And The Norm Of Values
Deciphering The General Blood Test In Adults And The Norm Of Values

Video: Deciphering The General Blood Test In Adults And The Norm Of Values

Video: Lab Results, Values, and Interpretation (CBC, BMP, CMP, LFT) 2022, November
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When it is required to understand the state of the human body, or to detect the presence of certain diseases, a UAC is prescribed. The doctor should directly decipher the general blood test in adults and children. We will just help you figure it out a little. What can be learned with the help of the UAC The main focus is on the blood cells, the main of which are erythrocytes, which provide tissues and cells with oxygen, leukocytes, which are responsible for immunity, and platelets, which allow blood to clot in a timely manner and avoid bleeding. In addition to determining the total number of these cells, other parameters are also examined. Additional characteristics are given for each type of shaped elements. By evaluating them, a medical professional can make a conclusion about various aspects of a particular person's life. Only a competent specialist has the right to decipher the results of a general blood test in adults. He is able to understand what the numbers in the received analysis form can talk about, as well as whether any deviations are possible when correlating these data with each other. The UAC is not the only diagnostic tool. It is assessed in conjunction with other activities, as well as an objective examination and questioning the patient. To take the analysis, a special scarifier or syringe is used. Blood can be drawn from a finger or vein. It is believed that venous blood is more suitable for this study, because it contains the highest concentration of erythrocytes and hemoglobin than that which circulates in the capillaries. In addition, you can immediately take a lot of material in order to conduct additional research if necessary and not prescribe a person for repeated procedures. include_poll2614 Approved standards There can always be a slight variation in CBC readings. Much depends on what gender the patient belongs to, what age he is, what kind of life he leads and in what area he lives. Further in the table you can see what norms of values ​​are approved for blood cells and other important blood parameters in adults: Hemoglobin, gram per 1 liter (g / l) Abbreviation Indicator and unit of measurement Men Women RET Reticulocytes, percentage (%) 0, 2-1.2 0.2-1.2 MCV Average volume of one erythrocyte, femtoliter (fl) 80-100 80-100 MCH Average hemoglobin content in one erythrocyte, picograms (pg) 26-34 26-34 MCHC Average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, gram per deciliter (g / dl) 32-37 32-36 RDW Erythrocyte anisocytosis, percentage (%) 11.5-14.5 11.5-14.5 WBC Leukocytes, 10 cells in grade 9 per 1 liter (109 / l) 4.0-9.0 4.0-9.0 NEUT Neutrophils, percentage (%): segmented forms stab forms 47-72 1-3 47-72 1-3 BASO Basophils, percentage (%) 0-1 0-1 EO Eosinophils, percent (%) 0.5-5 0.5-5 MON Monocytes, percent (%) 3-11 3-11 LYM Lymphocytes, percent (%) 19-37 19-37 PLT Platelets, 10 cells in grade 9 per 1 liter (10 * 9 / L) 180-320 180-320 MPV Average volume of one tr thrombocyte, femtoliter (fl) 7-10 7-10 PDW Platelet anisocytosis, percentage (%) 15-17 15-17 PCT Thrombocyte, percentage (%) 0.1-0.4 0.1-0.4 that in women during menstruation, the presence of erythrocytes and hemoglobin may be lower than in all previous periods of time. Deciphering the parameters Deciphering the general blood test in adults will allow you to determine if there are any pathological processes that are occurring in the body at the moment. Absolutely all data obtained in the analysis form should be evaluated. Erythrocytes These are the most important blood cells that are responsible for transporting oxygen to tissues and organs. Thanks to them, in fact, the body receives this valuable element, without which cell respiration is impossible. Sometimes red blood cells can be enlarged.This is facilitated by the following conditions: a type of leukemia called erythremia; heart defects; ingestion of carbon monoxide; lung disease. Sometimes red blood cells can temporarily decrease if a person climbs in the highlands. Another possible condition is a decrease in the level of this indicator, which is associated with such problems: latent or obvious blood loss; spleen pathologies; damage to the bone marrow. In some pregnant women, a decrease in red blood cells can be noted in the third trimester of pregnancy. A general blood test allows you to assess the size of red blood cells, as well as their characteristic shape. So, normally their size should be 7.5 microns. Shaped elements are disc-shaped. Sometimes red blood cells grow in size, which indicates malaria, liver damage, and vitamin B12 deficiency. If they become small, the person may have hemolytic anemia or latent tumors. Hemoglobin This is a special protein that is directly associated with red blood cells and is responsible for the delivery of oxygen to tissues. What can a lack of this blood component indicate? The phenomenon is observed in such cases: errors in the diet, receiving malnutrition, poor in nutrients, trace elements and vitamins; ingestion of lead particles; damage to the tissues of the spleen; congenital disorders in genes, leading to disruptions in the production of hemoglobin. Erythremia can lead to a pathological increase in hemoglobin. Also, sometimes this condition can be noted if pathological processes have arisen in the tissues of the lower respiratory organs. Table of normal indicators of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the general blood test: Normal indicators Men Women Erythrocytes 4.0 - 5.0 3.5 - 4.7 Hemoglobin 130-170 g / l 120-150 g / l Hematocrit erythrocytes in the blood are in a state, whether there are enough of them or, conversely, there is an excess or deficiency. The indicator obtained after the test reflects what ratio takes place in the case of the volume of erythrocytes in relation to the volume of plasma. If a person develops a tumor in the kidney tissues, or hypoxia occurs, the hematocrit increases. It can be lowered in the case of the introduction of special solutions of the infusion type. This pattern is sometimes attributed to pregnancy. Color Index There is a special formula that allows you to calculate this parameter. In fact, the indicator indicates how many red blood cells are in the blood and what is the level of hemoglobin. The color index under normal conditions should be close to 1. If a person has anemia, then this parameter may deviate from the norm. Depending on the specific type of anemia, deviations can be of one nature or another. If the color index is below 1, it means that the person has iron deficiency anemia, and then hemoglobin is reduced more than the total number of red blood cells. When the color index rises, one can suspect some other anemia, with the exception of iron deficiency. Normal indicators of hematocrit, color index and ESR: Norm Men Women Hematocrit 44-52% 36-43% Color index 0.85-1.05 0.85-1.05 ESR 1-10 mm / h, after 50 years - up to 15-20 mm / h 2-15 mm / h, after 50 years - up to 20-30 mm / h, pregnant women - up to 40 mm / h Leukocytes In the body, they perform a protective function and are white blood cells. They are aimed at destroying pathogenic cells, and are also capable of absorbing them. When the leukocytes in the blood rise, this condition is called leukocytosis. This phenomenon does not always indicate pathology. Sometimes, when there are certain physiological conditions, white blood cells can also increase. This can happen: when eating food, immediately after taking it; after physical exertion; in case of stress.Physiological leukocytosis is observed in women immediately before the onset of menstruation, in case of pregnancy or breastfeeding. Also, leukocytosis can be pathological. Its causes can be: infectious diseases; inflammatory processes; leukemia; getting injured; the formation of tumors. Even taking steroids can provoke a pathological increase in white blood cells. If there are not enough of them, this condition is called leukopenia. It can be observed in people in such cases: exposure to radiation rays; bone marrow tissue pathology; HIV infection; sepsis; taking on a long-term basis of certain groups of drugs. Physiological variants of leukopenia do not exist today. Leukocyte formula This is a special indicator in the general blood test, indicating the content of any types of leukocytes. Each of these varieties has its own specific function. When receiving test results, a specialist evaluates not only the presence of various forms of leukocytes, their percentage, but also their absolute number. This is a parameter that indicates the number of cells in accordance with the total content of formed elements in the blood. Neutrophils These are essential components of the bloodstream that recognize foreign elements and destroy them in a targeted manner. In the event of the death of pathogens, pus is formed, consisting of neutrophils and microbes. What can mean an increase in neutrophils: the tissues underwent inflammation and began to deteriorate; a bacterial infection has entered the body; there is damage to the bone marrow; the person took certain drugs that provoked this phenomenon. Viral infections, acute leukemias and radiation are factors that contribute to the decrease in neutrophils. Eosinophils Responsible in the body for the ability to absorb special immune complexes. They, in turn, are formed due to the ingress of allergens or other foreign elements into the body. The greatest activity of eosinophils is observed in the presence of helminths in the tissues. If they increase, it can also indicate such problems: leukemia; the presence of tuberculosis in a person. Are eosinophils lowered? Perhaps this was facilitated by burns, conditions after operations and injuries. Monocytes In many ways, the function they perform in the body is similar to that of neutrophils. The differences relate only to the fact that monocytes act in tissues. They are responsible for getting rid of old cells, bacterial organisms, immune complexes and proteins. What does the increase in monocytes indicate: the connective tissue was damaged; a person is at the stage of recovery after suffering illnesses; the patient has tuberculosis; about the possible development of oncological pathologies in the blood or dangerous tumors. During the period of taking hormonal drugs, the number of monocytes decreases. A similar picture is observed with sepsis and typhoid fever. Basophils They are directly involved in an allergic reaction. In addition, their number may increase if a woman is taking estrogens on a long-term basis. A similar condition develops in people with ulcerative colitis and leukemia. A decrease in basophils is not taken into account as an indicator of a pathological condition, since it has no particular clinical significance. Lymphocytes These shaped elements are responsible for the immune system and are capable of producing antibodies to bacteria and other groups of microbes. Which means if they have increased: the person has developed a viral infection; cytomegalovirus got into the tissue; have leukemia, viral hepatitis, or whooping cough. HIV infection contributes to a decrease in lymphocytes. The same is possible with tumors, as well as taking hormonal drugs. Platelets These components of the bloodstream are capable of providing blood clotting.If they are increased, this may indicate such problems: tuberculosis; cirrhosis of the liver; lymphoma; rheumatism; erythremia or leukemia. Autoimmune pathologies contribute to a decrease in the number of platelets. The same can happen with certain viral pathologies and certain types of tumors. ESR The parameter stands for erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is able to reflect the state of the protein composition of erythrocytes in the plasma. An increase in this parameter can be observed when the body collides with pathogenic microorganisms and inflammation. It also helps to increase the erythrocyte sedimentation rate of myeloma. A physiological increase in this parameter is noted after a period of hunger, due to physical exertion or vaccination. Before talking about the presence of a pathological process, a specialist evaluates additional conditions. Interesting! What the CRP analysis shows in coronavirus Reticulocytes In the general blood test under this name, immature erythrocytes are hidden, which in the future will turn into red blood cells. They are formed in the bone marrow tissue and go through a number of developmental stages. The penultimate phase of erythrocyte development is reticulocyte. In adults, the number of these shaped elements in a normal state should not be more than 2%. If reticulocytes are increased, then the reasons may be: hemolytic toxic substances; recovery period after radiation therapy; taking antipyretics, erythropoietin or Levodopa; ascent to the highlands. Pathology of the hematopoietic system, malaria, oxygen starvation, and even smoking also contribute to this phenomenon. Pregnancy can also be conducive to an increase in reticulocytes. If they are lowered, this indicates myxedema, which is a pathology of the thyroid gland, iron deficiency or aplastic anemia. Any kidney pathology that can lead to a decrease in erythropoietin also predisposes to a decrease in reticulocytes in the bloodstream. Results A complete blood count is an integral part of the diagnosis of any pathological condition. Deciphering the UAC should be dealt with by a qualified specialist who is able to correctly assess the quantitative and qualitative indicators obtained after this study. Indicators of the norm may differ depending on gender, age, and other related conditions.

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