British scientists have estimated that nearly a third of the country's population is obese. For Russia, according to Rospotrebnadzor, this problem is also relevant. Since 2013, the number of obese adults has almost doubled, and the disease is spreading among children. Doctors see a problem in Russian hospitality.
According to The Daily Mail, 30% of UK citizens have a BMI over 30 and double that of 25 years ago. At the same time, the growth of the British has practically not changed: men and women have grown by less than a centimeter. And this is a global problem.
In early June, Rospotrebnadzor drew attention to the fact that since 2013 the number of Russians who have become obese has almost doubled. In more than 30 regions of the country, the department noted a high incidence of obesity.
The worst of all are in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Altai Territory, St. Petersburg, as well as the Vologda, Kaliningrad and Novgorod regions.
“For the first time in the history of mankind, we have so much sweet, fatty and salty. Earlier, when our ancestors saw something sweet, their brain told them that it was important, that the more the better, it was important for survival. It has been like this for several million years. The situation has changed over the past 50 years. The so-called food environment has become oversaturated with fat, sweet, salty,”said Alexei Danilov, director of the Institute of Interdisciplinary Medicine, head of the Department of Nervous Diseases at the IPO of the First Moscow State Medical University named after IM Sechenov.
According to him, a person knows that such food is not very healthy, but in addition to its prevalence, he is also influenced by the desire to get rid of stress with the help of delicious.
"It has become entertainment. Food is a kind of generally accepted leisure. They eat in shopping centers, everywhere," says Aleksey Danilov
Another factor that affects a person's weight is the quality of food. Meat, fish and dairy products are no longer as useful as they used to be. The fact is that chickens, and chicken meat is considered dietary, are raised in incubators in 42 days, and there are 24 chickens per cubic meter. All these 42 days they live in constant stress and, so that they do not die, they are stuffed with antibiotics, which eventually enter the human body.
Blame the spoon for dad
Russians have a special reason to be obese, and it lies in the feasts that people arrange with or without reason. And also a tradition: you come to visit, be sure to sit down at the table and eat everything. Otherwise what? Disrespect for the owners.
“There is an idea that the more the better. Previously, we were taught to finish everything that is on the plate. It was great when people plowed on tractors, in the fields, and worked in factories. Now that they don't move much, this habit is not very good. Medical centers teach you to stop, stop eating when you feel that you are already full. There is no need to finish everything off the plate,”Danilov emphasized.
"Our grandmothers, raising mothers, and mothers, raising us, carried this value of food. The society of clean plates, you leave all your strength in the plate, ate badly means little. The words" good "and" a lot "are equated", - says Mikhail Khorsklinichesky psychologist, presenter of the TV channel "Doctor".
Another threat is related to the nutrition of expectant mothers. If women eat properly at least in the second trimester of pregnancy, their children will have a lower risk of developing diabetes and obesity, Danilov said. These are 60 days that can save lives. True, after giving birth for another 1000 days, it is also better not to overdo it with fatty and sweet foods.
Of course, diet and exercise can solve one person's problem. But globally, Danilov believes, the situation cannot be improved this way. The infrastructure needs to be changed.
Among the national projects of Russia is "Demography". Its goal, in particular, is to increase the expected healthy life expectancy to 67 years and to increase the proportion of citizens who systematically engage in physical culture and sports to 55%. For this, they plan to build new sports centers. This is good, but not only this is needed.
A person can spend energy in daily activities. For example, London's transport strategy specifically states that infrastructure facilities should be located so that a person can reach them on foot or by bicycle.
True, it is one thing to walk around London, and another - in the industrial zone on Prazhskaya. And this is another reason that indicates that the construction of sports centers is not enough.
“For people to move more, the road to the house should be more attractive: through parks and gardens,” says Aleksey Danilov.
And even creating a comfortable environment is actually not enough. While promotions in the style of "Three burgers for the price of two" are encouraged, it is difficult to talk about a global solution to the issue. Danilov believes that the authorities, doctors and businesses must find common interest in order to be profitable to sell healthy food. He used bread as an example. Now coarse bread is more expensive than refined bread, although the recipe for the former is simpler.
Three steps to losing weight
And obesity is fueled by all sorts of myths. For example, that it is hereditary or occurs due to hormonal changes. This also happens, but it is easily leveled by changing the eating behavior. People whose parents are overweight simply adopt the pattern of overeating and justifying themselves.
“The first thing to do is to accept responsibility. To say, 'I ate it,'” says Mikhail Khors.
The second is to learn how to feel full, even if your mother or grandmother says that you have not eaten well. We do not forget that a little has acquired a meaning badly, and a lot has acquired a good meaning.
There is also a biological factor. Some foods with sugar, abundant fat, and finely ground flour stimulate the production of the hormone dopamine.
“When dopamine is produced in everyday life, we are in a calm state. Then we overextended him once, the second, the third, having received bursts of dopamine due to bright taste sensations, and then we feel uneasy and depressed. Then we go to the refrigerator, dopamine is released again, and we felt satisfied,”explained Khors and added that the desire to go to the refrigerator can be compared to the breakdown of drug addicts.
To get rid of such a biological addiction, Horse recommended avoiding the situation when you say that you want some food, but you cannot. This food is what the disease wants, not you.
“You need to realize that when I overeat, I go against my real desires to be slim, beautiful, light. I have these desires: to play sports and eat wisely. But food addiction makes me eat. She can be drawn to associate her with another person who has different goals. Then the struggle with the obsessive feeling that something needs to be devoured will turn into a struggle with this character,”explained Khors.
He also strongly advised not to set yourself rigid limits. In order to really lose weight and not risk health, you need to lose weight in the same time during which it was gained. That is, if a person has gained 30 kilograms in 10 years, it means that he must also lose weight by the same 30 kilograms in 10 years.
"It takes longer than you want, but this is the most correct way," recalls Mikhail Khors.