Breast and ovarian cancers are the most well-known cancers that can occur due to mutations hidden in genes and can be inherited. Anna Stroganova, head of the molecular biological laboratory of the Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, doctor-laboratory geneticist, senior researcher, candidate of medical sciences, told Lente.ru about this.
“There are several dozen hereditary syndromes known to be caused by gene mutations. The best known are hereditary breast and ovarian cancers, in which there are mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Another common hereditary pathology is Lynch syndrome with a high risk of developing colon cancer, uterine cancer and stomach cancer,”explained Stroganova.
She noted that the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are not located on the sex chromosomes and can be passed on both maternal and paternal. “When a mutation is passed on to a man, there is a chance of developing breast, prostate or pancreatic cancer, but it is less likely than a woman’s likelihood of developing breast or ovarian cancer. Men can be carriers of mutations in these genes, but they are less likely to manifest clinically,”Stroganova clarified.
According to her, the probability of transmission of "broken" genes is 50 percent. However, passing a gene with a mutation does not mean 100 percent disease, she said. At the same time, the risk of the disease increases with age.
Earlier it became known that the risk of developing certain types of cancer is increased by 30 times against the background of smoking, and alcohol consumption further increases these numbers. According to him, the chief oncologist of the Ministry of Health, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Andrei Kaprin, only 15 percent of oncological diseases are caused by a genetic factor. Lifestyle and age related mutations are much more important.