It is worth examining the mammary glands for women with changes in the skin, stretching of the nipples or seals in the structure. It is also necessary to consult a specialist in case of "dense" mammary glands. The site "Arguments and Facts" informs about it. Irina Solntseva, Associate Professor of the Department of Radiation Diagnostics and Radiation Therapy, Northwestern State Medical University named after II Mechnikov, said that there are several types of tissues in the structure of the mammary gland, in particular, fatty and fibroglandular. The latter are considered "radiologically dense" because of the shadow on mammography images. The predominance of fibroglandular tissue is called "dense" mammary gland. "Doctors distinguish four types of density - A, B, C and D. The first two are loose structure types, and they do not cause any concern. Types C and D are those options in which dense tissue predominates in the structure of the mammary gland. In the case of the C-type, it is in a slightly smaller amount, and in the D-type it occupies almost the entire volume of the gland, "the specialist noted. She added that "dense" breasts increase the risk of cancer. With the C-type of density, it increases by 2 times, with the D-type - 4-6 times. Moreover, 60 percent of young women and 40 percent of postmenopausal women have a dense structure of the mammary glands. With "dense" breasts, there are other risk factors for cancer. These are early onset of menstruation, late onset of menopause, long-term use of hormone replacement therapy, benign proliferative diseases of the breast. In these cases, the oncologist will recommend more frequent examinations. Solntseva clarified that at an early, preclinical stage, breast tumors are curable in 95–98 percent of cases. Cancer can only be detected with mammography. However, "dense" breasts complicate this process. "The mammographic density of tumor nodes is in many ways similar to the dense tissue of the mammary gland, so they become invisible against its background. And as a result, up to 40 percent of cancer is missed by mammography against the background of dense tissue," the doctor emphasized, adding that not to miss the tumor with dense the structure will allow additional ultrasound. The specialist also emphasized that radiologists should describe in detail the density of the mammary glands so that women understand whether they should additionally consult a mammologist-oncologist. In addition, the new 3D ultrasound technique will also allow examining the mammary glands without skipping sites. "Carrying out such a procedure, in addition to mammography against the background of dense breast tissue, can detect 2.6 times more malignant tumors and 55 percent more invasive breast tumors," the specialist said. She concluded that the only way to prevent the development of cancer is to diagnose it early. Solntseva recommends that women over 40 undergo mammography once every 2 years. If the mammary gland turned out to be "dense", an ultrasound scan should be done additionally. In case of heredity, it is recommended to go to the examination of a mammologist from the age of 25-30. Earlier, the chief oncologist of the Ministry of Health, Andrei Kaprin, spoke about the early symptoms of lung cancer. According to the expert, the disease is characterized by such manifestations as a low temperature (about 37.2) and weakness without signs of a cold. Also, the specialist drew attention to any bleeding when coughing.
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