In 2019, the world was struck by a new disease - the coronavirus infection COVID-19. Scientists began to look for a cure for the disease. For the first time, a vaccine against the Gam-COVID-Vac coronavirus was received in Russia.
The Russian vaccine Gam-COVID-Vac has been developed and manufactured to prevent the development of COVID-19 infection. This is a vector combination drug.
Gam-COVID-Vac is manufactured using biotechnology, which does not imply the use of coronaviruses dangerous to humans. The drug is formed from two parts. The first contains a recombinant adenovirus vector. It serves as a transport medium.
The second part contains a vector of adenoviral particles with the same gene. This is the main part of the vaccine, it builds immunity.
Gam-COVID-Vac contains the coronavirus vector. A vector is a virus that is devoid of the ability to multiply, that is, it is harmless to humans.
Release form of the drug
The vaccine "Gam-COVID-Vak" is produced in the form of a solution for injection into the muscle of 0.5 ml. The composition is placed in bottles made of transparent glass with tight rubber stoppers. Each container is provided with a label. The vaccine is packed in cardboard boxes, each with instructions.
If the vaccine is produced by Binnopharm JSC, then the solution is packaged in 1 ml transparent glass ampoules with labels. The vaccine is placed in contour packs and cardboard boxes. There are packages with vials of 3 ml.
When frozen, the vaccine becomes a white solid mass. After thawing, it will be a colorless solution or acquire a yellow tone.
The vaccine must not be re-frozen.
The lyophilisate for making a solution also has 2 components. It is packaged in transparent bottles, tightly closed with rubber stoppers, packed in cardboard boxes, provided with an annotation.
Manufacturers of the drug
The vaccine "Gam-COVID-Vac" has the trade name "Sputnik V". Scientists around the world competed behind the scenes to see who would be the first manufacturer of a coronavirus vaccine. Russian specialists have proven their ability to work quickly and efficiently, study unknown infections and develop advanced drugs.
In addition to GU NIIEM named after N.F. Gamalei RAMS, the vaccine is produced at several other enterprises:
at the branch of the Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after N.F. Gamalei "Medgamal"; Binnopharm JSC; JSC "Generium".
The registration mark for the production of the vaccine "Gam-COVID-Vac" is owned by the Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after N.F. Gamalei of the Ministry of Health of Russia as its inventor.
The Russian coronavirus vaccine was registered on August 11, 2020.
From the end of January 2021, the production of the Russian vaccine Gam-COVID-Vac begins in Brazil, India, China, and South Korea.
Composition of the Russian vaccine
The first component contains an active substance and additional components. The active part has adenoviral particles of the 26th serotype. The composition contains the protein S gene of the coronavirus. The auxiliary part contains magnesium chloride, polysorbate, sucrose, water for injection and other necessary substances.
The second component of the vaccine also has an active part and additional ingredients. The active part contains adenoviral recombinant parts of serotype 5. They contain the S protein gene of the coronavirus. The additional part contains the same set of substances that are in the first.
The effectiveness of "Gam-COVID-Vac"
The drug "Gam-COVID-Vac" is produced in the form of a solution for intramuscular injections. The effectiveness of the Russian vaccine is quite high, it is 91.4%, which is confirmed by clinical studies.Effectiveness against severe cases is 100%.
Experts from the World Health Organization said they would consider the vaccine to be 70% successful. The Russian government has included Gam-COVID-Vak in the list of essential drugs.
Most of all in the world they buy the English vaccine AstraZeneca, its effectiveness is 70%, but at the same time the price is relatively low - 4-5 dollars. You can store it in a regular refrigerator.
The American Pfizer has a price of $ 39 for two components, for Modern you will have to pay $ 37. Their efficiency is 95%. Russia is in seventh place in sales. Our government is more focused on vaccinating its own population.
Restrictions on use
The first Russian vaccine was created to prevent coronavirus infection in adults aged 18-60 years. There are contraindications for use:
pregnancy, lactation period; hypersensitivity to the components of the drug; exacerbation of chronic pathologies; diseases of an infectious or non-infectious origin in the acute stage; allergic manifestations; severe complications after the vaccine - restrictions on the introduction of the second component.
The recovered are vaccinated 2-4 weeks after the temperature has dropped, the condition improves, and remission. Patients with the following diseases are vaccinated with caution and under the control of their well-being:
epilepsy; immunodeficiency of the primary or secondary form; diseases of the hematopoietic system; pathology of the central nervous system; chronic liver pathologies; diseases of the excretory system; diseases of the heart, blood vessels; lung pathology, for example, bronchial asthma; skin pathologies, for example, eczema, atopic dermatitis, allergic manifestations.
Before vaccination, a medical examination is carried out, the body temperature of each patient is measured. If it is more than 37 ° C, the vaccine is not given.
With proper storage and vaccination, observance of restrictions, the vaccine against coronavirus "Gam-COVID-Vac" is well tolerated.
The Russian drug "Sputnik V" is designed only for intramuscular injection.
In the course of trials and in the study of similar drugs that were developed using the same technologies, complications were identified. They were mild to moderate in intensity. Arose on the 1-2 day after vaccination, passed through the third day.
To alleviate the condition, experts recommended symptomatic treatment and taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs if necessary. More often than others, the following side reactions occurred:
weakness; headache; muscle and joint pain; temperature increase; chills; soreness, redness at the injection site.
In rare cases, nausea, loss of appetite, swollen lymph nodes, allergic reactions, and indigestion may occur. The latter manifests itself in the form of constipation or diarrhea.
The Russian vaccine against COVID-19 became the first in the world, so many questions arose: how effective is it, when it is registered, how does it work? Vaccination is taking place throughout the country with good results, which means that the drug is fulfilling its task. All medications have side effects and contraindications. It is no coincidence that many countries recognize and buy the Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine. It is already being produced abroad. "Gam-COVID-Vac" is not sold in Russia, vaccinations are given free of charge.