Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world. They claim 18 million lives annually. The cardiologist of the Department of Cardiac Surgery of the MONIKI named after M. Vladimirsky Irina Bondareva.
- Why are cardiovascular diseases so dangerous?
Irina Bondareva: Because the heart is the main organ, our motor, which supplies the entire body with blood, produces oxygenation. One of the main diseases is cardiovascular pathology.
- Are the most often fatal heart diseases congenital or acquired?
Irina Bondareva: Many acquired defects and many congenital ones. But with congenital it is easier, because we diagnose them immediately after birth and correct them. And acquired, many patients may simply not notice, because they are asymptomatic. Always in the recommendations after 40-45 years there is an observation by a cardiologist.
- It used to be that heart ailments appear in people with age. Today, more and more often you can hear that heart diseases have become much younger. What is the reason?
Irina Bondareva: The main reason for a young heart attack is the wrong way of life: bad habits, unhealthy diet, non-observance of the daily regimen, the use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs, which lead to such complications.
- Can a heart attack occur unexpectedly or are there symptoms?
Irina Bondareva: A heart attack can occur unexpectedly and has its own "bells" when a patient is prone to a heart attack. People who have bad habits (smoking, drinking large doses of alcohol, unhealthy diet), who have diabetes, who suffer from arterial hypertension - they are already predisposed to a heart attack. There are patients in whom everything is asymptomatic: the patient is well, walks, does his favorite job, sometimes drinks, sometimes smokes. Stress has a huge impact on the development of heart disease, so myocardial infarction can occur in such patients.
- In addition to stress, what other causes of cardiovascular diseases are there?
Irina Bondareva: These are acquired chronic diseases - obesity, diabetes mellitus, violation of the daily routine, nutrition, when the patient breaks the diet, consumes a lot of salt, a lot of fat, carbohydrates, when there is little movement during the day, when people are at stressful workplaces.
- Can heart ailments be prevented with proper nutrition?
Irina Bondareva: Proper nutrition is the key to a healthy lifestyle. If patients follow a diet, do not consume more than five grams of salt per day, a lot of fat, adhere to fractional nutrition, a diet rich in potassium and magnesium, vitamins, when they do not use fast carbohydrates, of course, it is possible.
- Can a glass of dry red wine harm the heart of a healthy person?
Irina Bondareva: If you take one glass of red wine, then 50 grams for dinner is useful - it dilates the blood vessels. But in our country it is extremely rare to drink alcohol in metered doses. If one glass is good for the vessels. If more, wine will provoke heart disease.
- Much has been said about the benefits of sports. How to determine the correct load, what is definitely not worth doing if you have heart problems?
Irina Bondareva: We start the day with gymnastics. It is very useful not only for the heart, but also for the skeleton, muscle frame. Also walking - calm, measured, in the fresh air, two hours a day. Swimming, when the body relaxes, is calm, so that the body rests.
Big sport is harmful, it is endurance, there will be no benefit.We prescribe physical therapy to many patients after surgical corrections, because it is useful. We must help our body to develop, so exercise therapy, gymnastics, swimming, outdoor race walking are of great benefit.
- What do you need to minimize the risk of heart disease?
Irina Bondareva: Healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition. Patients at risk should see a cardiologist at least once every six months or once a year. If there are chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to follow the recommendations of doctors - the daily regimen, get more rest, not get nervous, take everything calmly, then the risk will decrease.