All About The First Trimester Of Pregnancy

All About The First Trimester Of Pregnancy
All About The First Trimester Of Pregnancy

Video: All About The First Trimester Of Pregnancy

Video: All About The First Trimester Of Pregnancy
Video: What to expect in your First Trimester of pregnancy | Pregnancy Week-by-Week 2023, September
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Obstetrician-gynecologist of the network of centers of reproduction and genetics "Nova Clinic" Aza Mukhadinovna Balova reports. The first trimester lasts until the 13th week. All this time, the embryo is developing rapidly, and it is during this period that the danger of miscarriage is especially great. The average weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy should be about 0.2 kg per week. However, many expectant mothers are worried about early toxicosis, so the total increase in 3 months sometimes does not exceed 2 kg. For the same reason, a woman's body weight sometimes remains the same or even slightly decreases. As for the tummy, in some expectant mothers it appears as early as 15-17 weeks, while in others the figure hardly changes until late. In the first trimester, as a rule, there are no changes at all. The increase in the size of the uterus occurs during the entire period of gestation. In the first trimester of pregnancy (up to the 12th week inclusive), the entire uterus is in the small pelvis, although already at this stage its dimensions are proportional to the head of the newborn. From the 12th week, the uterus is palpated in the lower abdomen, a couple of centimeters above the pubic bone. As the gestation period increases, it rises. Signs and symptoms of pregnancy Any signs of pregnancy can be subdivided into the following groups: - hypothetical, which include a change in the physical and emotional state of a woman (increased irritability, change in taste preferences, nausea, drowsiness, decreased performance); - probable, which include a delay in the next menstruation, as well as engorgement and increased sensitivity of the mammary glands. In addition, pregnancy may be indicated by the fact that urination is somewhat frequent (especially at night). However, you need to understand that the same symptoms may well be the result of stress or hypothermia. Some of the signs (for example, a change in the size and shape of the uterus) can only be detected by a doctor during an in-person appointment. - reliable signs, which include, say, the movement of the future baby, probing his heel or hand through the abdominal wall. But, of course, this becomes possible already at a later stage of pregnancy. Analyzes and medical examinations In the first trimester, the expectant mother needs to be tested and examined: blood type and Rh factor; a smear on flora, sowing from the cervical canal; PCR for STIs; RK, cytology; blood test (clinical and biochemical); urine analysis (general); antibodies to syphilis, HIV, HBs Ag, HCV total; TORCH-complex, TSH, free T4; coagulogram (APTT, A3, TB, PT (INR), D-dimers, fibrinogen); Ultrasound + screening of the first trimester; ECG; consultations of a therapist, ophthalmologist, dentist, otolaryngologist. Ultrasound Ultrasound is able to show the presence of the ovum after the first week of delay, that is, already in the second or third week of the conception period. During an ultrasound scan, the doctor can not only confirm the fact of pregnancy, but also exclude the attachment of the ovum outside the uterus, determine the number of embryos, calculate the CTE (coccygeal-parietal size) of each of them, and establish the location of the chorion (embryo membrane). Starting from four weeks, the heartbeat of the unborn baby is heard. Screening The use of complex (ultrasound TVP + biochemical tests) screening makes it possible to detect Down syndrome in an unborn child in the first trimester of pregnancy in 85-90% of cases with 5% of false-positive results. PRISC is a program registered for use in the Russian Federation that supports the calculation of risks during screening examinations of the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. The calculation of risks is carried out using a combination of certain markers (in the first trimester these include the free beta subunit of hCG and PAPP) and ultrasound indicators (thickness of the fetal collar space, data on visualization of the nasal bone). Screening of the first trimester is carried out in two stages: ultrasound screening; biochemical screening. This word is called the collection of blood from a vein. In the conclusion, quantitative indicators of risk assessment for trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome) and trisomy 13/18 (Patau's syndrome and / or Edwards syndrome), as well as age-related risk, are indicated. What a baby looks like After fertilization, the egg moves through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. Embryo implantation is carried out on the sixth to eighth day after fertilization. How does this happen? The ovum settles on the surface of the endometrium and is attached to the wall of the uterus with the help of chorionic villi. The cells of the embryo are actively dividing. This period plays a huge role in the development of the unborn child. Already, the rudiments of the skeleton, as well as the nervous and muscular systems of the body, are being formed. The future baby, who is not yet very human, has a head, limbs, a heart and, oddly enough, a tail. It also has a branchial cleft. If in the fifth week of pregnancy the length of the embryo is on average 6 mm, then by the seventh week it doubles more! Can you imagine how fast the baby is growing? Now he has a tiny mouth and nose. Auricles are forming. All systems that began to form earlier continue to actively develop. Already at such a short time, the future baby develops skin sensitivity in the mouth area, which is a kind of preparation for the development of the sucking reflex. By the ninth to tenth week, the growth of the fetus is approximately 20 mm. The gill slits disappear. On the ultrasound, you can hear the heart of the crumbs beating. Now the entire surface of the baby's body is sensitive, and he learns new tactile sensations for him, touching everything around: the umbilical cord, his own body, the walls of the fetal bladder surrounding him. The child is actively moving. Although the mother still cannot feel it, the baby is too small. Marigolds appear on the fingers and toes. At a period of eleven to fourteen weeks, the growth of the baby (or rather, its coccygeal-parietal size) is about 13 cm, and the weight is close to 100 grams. The baby tastes amniotic fluid. And now, by his facial expressions, one can understand whether he likes what his mother recently ate. For example, if it was something bitter, the baby will begin to frown and try to swallow less of the tasteless amniotic fluid. The limbs are now fully formed. The child's movements become more coordinated. With the help of the kidneys, urine is formed. The genitals can already be distinguished. Determining the sex of the child Already at the end of the first trimester, you can try to find out the sex of the unborn baby. But it must be borne in mind that the accuracy of the predictions that an ultrasound doctor can give is not so great. This is due to the peculiarities of the formation of female and male organs at this stage of development. However, by 14-15 weeks, the percentage of probable error in sex determination is noticeably reduced, and a good specialist who conducts research on an expert-level apparatus is likely to "guess" who will be born to you. What happens in the first trimester of pregnancy - sensations In the first trimester, a woman notes the following changes: an increase in body temperature and basal temperature; feeling unwell; increased breast tenderness; heaviness in the pelvic area; nausea, vomiting; mood swings. Pain in the abdomen Sometimes pain in the lower abdomen at the beginning of pregnancy is not a cause for concern at all. In the very early stages, this may be a sign of successful attachment of the embryo to the wall of the uterus. The pain caused by implantation may not be permanent. If it grows or does not stop for several days, this is a serious reason to see a doctor. Lower back pain Many women who are expecting a baby have lower back pain. Back pain in early pregnancy can be both a natural physiological phenomenon and a sign of pathology. Normally, a woman may experience slight discomfort in the lower back, which is caused by softening of the ligaments and muscle relaxation. In addition, discomfort can occur due to a shift in the center of gravity. The most common causes of pathological lower back pain in the first trimester include the threat of termination of pregnancy and infectious diseases of the urinary system. Be sure to see your doctor if you notice any urinary disorders or fever. Pain in the back and lower abdomen, especially accompanied by uterine bleeding, indicates an ongoing miscarriage. Discharge Normally, discharge should not have a specific odor and color. If you notice that they have acquired a greenish or yellow tint, have begun to smell unpleasant or have changed their consistency, be sure to consult a doctor. These signs may indicate an infectious process, and timely treatment will help prevent dangerous complications. Spotting in early pregnancy occurs in 75% of cases and most often indicates natural processes in a woman's body. However, the discharge of blood from the genital tract may also indicate the threat of termination of pregnancy, therefore, if this symptom is present, it is necessary to urgently consult a specialist. Nausea Scientists still cannot say for sure why pregnant women develop toxicosis. Most experts are inclined to believe that this condition is due to a sharp change in hormonal levels. Improper nutrition, endocrine and neurological pathologies, as well as diseases of the pelvic organs can be named as negative predisposing factors. Nausea can be exacerbated by stress. According to the observations of specialists, this symptom is less often detected in women for whom pregnancy was expected and desired. In addition, physical overwork, lack of sleep and colds can provoke toxicosis. If bouts of vomiting occur no more than three times a day and you are not losing weight, then you should not worry. However, if you have signs of dehydration, weight loss, or any other symptoms, be sure to see your obstetrician-gynecologist. What can and cannot be done in the first trimester of pregnancy Of course, it is necessary to give up all bad habits and completely eliminate alcohol. Stick to the principles of fractional eating, eating often, but little by little. Even if toxicosis does not allow you to enjoy your favorite dishes, in no case should you completely refuse to eat. Be sure to monitor the regularity of your bowel movements. Constipation, which often occurs in pregnant women, can provoke intoxication. Try to get enough sleep, get more rest, and be less nervous. You should not completely abandon physical activity, but the training program must be discussed with your instructor. You don't need to think that the absence of external signs of pregnancy allows you to practice in the same mode and go on records. But now you can and should go for a walk. Hiking can help you stay fit and boost your immunity. Take folic acid, which can help prevent an unborn child from developing malformations. Never take any medication without first consulting your doctor. Many of them can have a negative effect on the embryo. Proper nutrition and diet The body must receive a sufficient amount of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. A balanced diet is an important step towards having a healthy baby. Try to eat a variety of foods, including meat and fish, milk and cereals, fruits and vegetables, herbs and nuts. At the same time, the daily calorie content of the diet should be increased by no more than 100 kilocalories. The share of carbohydrates should be 55%, fats - 30%, proteins - 15%. Breakfast and lunch should be the most dense. They account for 25-30 and 40% of the total daily calorie content, respectively. It is best to have lunch in the morning (until 13-30). Do not eat after 19-00. Try to eat more fruits and greens in the summer, vegetables and nuts in the winter. Be sure to include fiber-rich foods in your diet. This will help you normalize your bowel movements and thereby prevent constipation. Sports Not all types of physical activity are allowed during pregnancy. At any time the following will be useful: swimming (excluding jumping); yoga. The instructor must choose a suitable set of exercises for you, since you cannot perform some asanas now; Pilates, which helps to strengthen the muscles in the pelvic area and also improves blood circulation; exercises using fitball, which help reduce back pain and normalize blood pressure; special gymnastics that can be done in groups for pregnant women. In the first trimester of pregnancy, when all the systems and organs of the unborn baby are laid, you should be very careful about fitness. The load when performing any type of exercise can be increased a little later, after the symptoms of toxicosis disappear. During the first months of pregnancy, it is recommended to: attend classes regularly, preferably three times a week; observe an interval of several hours between the last meal and exercise; doing breathing exercises to increase the amount of oxygen entering the body; avoid any cardio loads, since during this period the cardiovascular system is already working in an enhanced mode; avoid overheating, since the unborn child does not yet have its own thermoregulation system. Vitamins Now vitamins and minerals are required not only for the woman herself, but also for her unborn child. Which of them are the most important now? Folic acid is essential for the formation of the nervous and cardiovascular systems of the fetus. Iodine is required to maintain the function of the mother's thyroid gland, as well as the normal mental and physical development of the baby. B vitamins are required, the deficiency of which is associated with various malformations of the fetus. By the way, vitamin B6 will help you fight toxicosis by reducing nausea. Zinc helps a child develop and gain weight normally. Mom also needs it, since it has an immunomodulatory effect and promotes the regeneration of the skin. Calcium is necessary for the formation of the skeleton of the crumb. The need for it increases markedly by the second half of pregnancy. The amount of vitamin A entering the body should be closely monitored, since both a deficiency and an excess of retinol can negatively affect the development of the unborn child. The daily dose should be 3333 IU. Lutein has a positive effect on the development of the baby's brain. Rutin strengthens the walls of the capillaries, making them elastic, prevents stagnation of blood in the veins and helps to reduce leg swelling. Sex If the pregnancy is proceeding normally, there is no reason to end the intimate relationship. However, in the first trimester, women often have a decrease in libido, which is associated with increased fatigue, mood swings and bouts of nausea (that is, general malaise, initially provoked by hormonal changes). Contraindications smoking, alcohol intake; serious physical activity, active sports; overwork, stress; medications (they can only be taken as directed by a doctor); X-ray studies..com Let's be friends on social networks! Subscribe to us on Facebook, VKontakte and Odnoklassniki!

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